Adult mosquitos have a globe shaped head with large compound eyes, antennae around 3 times longer than the head, females are hairy, and males are bushy this makes it easy to distinguish between the sexes with the naked eye. Each sex has a proboscis with a pair of palps, one on each side, in females these are smooth and in males they have tufts of bristles. The mouthparts form the long proboscis designed for piercing and they have a pair of membranous wings.
Larvae are aquatic, they have well developed heads and unsegmented and swollen thorax. The abdomen is segmented, and the last segment has a pair of spiracles, one segment is used for breathing at the surface of the water. Many of the body’s segments are covered with bristles.
The pupae are comma shaped with the tail ending with a pair of paddles. The head has a pair of respiratory trumpets which the pupae uses to breathe. There are traces of wings and the long legs of the adult developing.
Mosquitoes are universal insects, they can endure almost all climates ranging from the arctic to the tropics. They can breed in almost all types of water from polluted to clean, small collections of water to large streams. They are easily distributed by transport systems such as aircraft and boats, this allows non-indigenous species to be introduced to new territories, infected mosquitoes have been transported in this way to milder climates in turn transmitting tropical diseases.
In cooler climates they are mostly just a biting nuisance but, in the tropics, they are a serious vector of disease. They can spread diseases such as, yellow fever, malaria, encephalitis, filariasis and dengue fever to both humans and animals. The spread of disease is caused by the mosquitos that choose humans as their primary hosts and enter house whilst on the hunt for blood to feed on.
Some species of mosquito do not feed on humans and instead choose to feed on other mammals, reptiles and birds. Statistics show that of 270 million people infected with malaria in one year and up to 2 million of those will die. This is just one of the diseases that mosquitoes can transmit, and it is why they are considered one of the most dangerous creatures in the world.
Control measures can be taken against both Larvae and adults.
Larvae: to control the larvae it is important to minimise any possible habitats such as sealing of drains and soakaways and removing any standing water that may have collected and dispose of things that are collecting water. If it is not possible to do this then larvicides should be applied to the water regular to ensure that larvae are killed and are unable to pupate.
Adults: Indoor aerosols may be used to kill adults, and repellents such as treated bed nets, mosquito coils, mats and so on can be used to minimise chances of the mosquitoes coming back. In more severe infestations fogs will be used to a have a fast effect and reduce infestations both indoor and out.
Homes and Businesses – Fly screens covering opening windows and doors will help prevent all flying insects from entering, contact Manchester Pest Control for a survey.